IAMC, formerly known as Indian Muslim Council (IMC-USA), is a founding member of the CAG. IAMC was set up in the aftermath of the 2002 Gujarat riots and considers itself the “largest advocacy organization of Indian Muslims in the United States.” Since its founding, one of its primary missions has been to lynch Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi for his supposed role in the riots and to ensure that the so-called “human rights violations” against Muslims in Gujarat are highlighted at an international level.
IAMC fights for the interests and concerns of Indian Muslims in the US and in India. While it stands for “pluralism, tolerance, and respect for human rights” and to “provide increasing inter-faith and inter-community understanding in the United States, with particular focus on the Indian Diaspora,” its activities aim at routinely demonizing India and Hindus by showing both as oppressors of Muslims, Christians and Dalits. Further, under the veil of inter-faith and inter-community discourse, IAMC mostly invites individuals known for their biased views on India and Hinduism. India and Hindus are automatically rendered guilty of crimes against Muslims, Christians and Dalits, while any terrorist attack in India needs to be “carefully analyzed” before they are blamed on Islamic terrorists.
It is even more disturbing that IAMC puts on a farce about Indian patriotism while its founders are known to support Pakistani extremists and glorify jihadists that fight India in Kashmir.
This page demonstrates how IAMC demonizes the Indian state and the majority population of India – Hindus – via its views, events and stances.
Section 1.01 Spotlight on Prominent Members of IAMC
(a) Shaik Ubaid
Shaik Ubaid is a key founding member and one of the main coordinators of CAG. Ubaid is also the founding president of IAMC and has served as president of IAMC in its initial years. Ubaid continues to be a prominent figure in IAMC. Besides being active in CAG, he is also the founding member of Indian Minorities Advocacy Network (ImanNet) and Muslim Peace Coalition USA.
Ubaid has a visceral hatred for various Hindu groups that he labels as “Hindu extremists/fascists” and does not miss a chance to link them to any hate mongering attacks in the world. On August 5, 2012, Ubaid and Shaik Sayeed condemned the racist attack on the Milwaukee Sikh Gurudwara in a press release on behalf of ImanNet and Muslim Peace Coalition USA. In this release, Ubaid desperately links “Hindu extremists” to this attack and implies that Hindus had something to do with it. He states: “Some Hindu extremist groups in the US have joined hands with other Islamophobic hate-peddlers [emphasis added]. They should now realize that the hate that they are spreading endangers all South Asians irrespective of their religious backgrounds and will not be limited to hatred against Muslims.” The statement essentially implies that such an attack was fanned by an apparent partnership between white supremacists and “Hindu extremists”. One cannot help but be appalled by such brazen attempts to tar the Hindus by Ubaid and the Islamic organizations that he runs.
(i) ImanNet – Example of deceptive tactics practiced by Ubaid and IAMC
Ubaid’s politics of deception and dubious activism is all too obvious when one does a deeper investigation of organizations like ImanNet. Initially, ImanNet was called Indian Muslim Alert Network. On its Facebook Page, the organization calls itself Indian Minorities Advocacy Network while on its website (still under construction) the organization calls itself Indian Muslims Advocacy Network. Ubaid declares himself as the president of ImanNet in several Press releases, some issued alongside IAMC and other members of the CAG. However, ImanNet is actually a division of IAMC, per the May 24, 2004 snapshot of www.imannet.com by the Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine. The website’s header and the “About Us” section clearly declare that ImanNet is a division of Indian Muslim Council (IMC-USA). The screenshot below reproduces the website.
Similarly, a Wayback Machine capture of www.imannet.com on August 2, 2011 shows that its site actually redirects to IAMC’s old website (www.imc-usa.org). This is also true as of August 31, 2006, June 24, 2007 and November 20, 2008. Therefore, it is clear that Ubaid and IAMC are deceiving the general public by declaring ImanNet a separate organization.
In addition, Ubaid notoriously exaggerates the death toll of Muslims in the Gujarat riots in order to raise funds and gain further sympathy from the wider Muslim world. For example, in 2002, ImanNet published a brochure titled “Unite to Fight Hindu Fascists”, containing highly explosive information to incite anger and hatred in a wider audience in mosques and other public spaces. Among other things, the brochure exclaims: “It is estimated that more than 5,000 Muslims [emphasis added] were hacked to death, burnt alive or shot by police in the Gujarat ethnic cleansing and 2,000 women and little girls [emphasis added] were raped.” Ubaid sent a personal appeal to Muslim media outlets around the world, urging financial help as well as “volunteers to distribute the [above brochure] in their area masjids, churches, schools and stores”. In this appeal, Ubaid exaggerates the situation yet again by declaring:
The fascist forces have plans to ethnically cleanse India of Muslims, Christians and other minorities. In Gujarat they demonstrated the depth of their evil when they massacred 5,000 people, gang-raped and burnt alive little girls. Even unborn babies were not spared.
(ii) ImanNet, IAMC and the SIMI Connection
IAMC and ImanNet’s Islamist/terrorist connections come to light through the likes of Ubaid and Syed Azmatullah Quadri. For example, in 2008, CAG wrote to President Obama expressing concerns over the selection of Sonal Shah to the President’s Transition Board, blaming Ms Shah for maintaining links to “Hindu extremists”. In the letter, Syed Azmatullah Quadri signs as the Founding Chairman of ImanNet, while Ubaid signs as the Founding President of ImanNet. According to Illinois State Records, Quadri was the Registering Agent of IMC-USA, the former name of IAMC. And, it was shown earlier that ImanNet is a division of IAMC. But, Quadri was also one of the founders of Consultative Committee on Indian Muslims (CCIM). In 2008, The Times of India carried an article stating that the CCIM and the Islamic Society of North America (ISNA) provided significant financial support to the Students Islamic Movement of India (SIMI).
SIMI is a banned terrorist/jihadist organization in India that has been active since 2001 with links to Jamaat-e-Islam (JeI), Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT), and the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI). SIMI leaders and members have been arrested in India in connections with multiple terrorist attacks and plots. SIMI has “…declared Jihad against India, the aim of which is to establish Dar-ul-Islam (land of Islam) by either forcefully converting everyone to Islam or by violence”. In 2008, the jailed chief of SIMI, Safdar Nagori, told prison interrogators that he had “…‘great respect’ for Osama bin Laden…” and that “…Taliban’s Mullah Omar [is] the ‘true caliph’ of the Muslim world”.
(iii) Islamic Circle of North America and the Terrorist/Jihadist Support
Ubaid has also been associated with the Islamic Circle of North America (ICNA) for many years and was the secretary-general of ICNA as well as the associate editor of ICNA’s newsletter The Message. ICNA is known for its Islamist views and has been under close scrutiny and criticism for alleged ties to Islamist extremist organizations and individuals around the world. In addition, ICNA has organized several controversial events, invited controversial individuals at its events and glorified terrorists who fight Jihad in places like Kashmir and Chechnya. The following points about ICNA are noteworthy:
- ICNA’s official website (www.icna.org) is registered to Raza Farrukh, whose farrukh.net is a mirror website of the Media Division of Jamaat-e-Islami, the Islamist extremist party of Pakistan. Farrukh is part of Jamaat believes in establishing a hard-core Islamic state based on Shariah law and has been known to lend support to the Afghan Taliban and Islamist Jihadists. In February 1999, Qazi Hussain Ahmed, the late Chief of Jamaat, gave an interview in a Baluchi Magazine Jamhooria Islamia, in which he states:
…once in power, [Jamaat] will abolish the voting right of women and minorities who will be forced to become Muslims ‘either by monetary or psychological factors’… ‘Our motto is constant jihad. The idea is to keep Pakistan in a constant state of Jihad all the time.’ [emphasis original]. His vision is that ‘Pakistan will be the center of the new Islamic empire that stretches from Burma to Afghanistan and from Sri Lanka to Tajikistan, including Kashmir. Toward the end, the Jamaat will use all tactics from terrorism in the kafir-controlled area to negotiations in the Muslim-controlled areas.’ [emphasis original].
In addition, Jamaat’s old website carried a link to a highly biased and incendiary website on Hinduism by one Abdul Wahid. This was the sole information available on Hinduism on Jamaat’s website. Titled “Hinduism: Inside and Out”, the website opens with the following introduction to Hinduism:
It seems that a group of polytheists with a sick fetish for cattle have the audacity to launch an attack against Al-Islam. Yes, the irony is truly there, but these people have brought their own destruction from shirk (polytheism), so it is our duty to bring to light major points about this religion, which currently is oppression 98% of the country of India (as well as other Hindu-majority countries). From the articles that will follow, the reader will be able to easily see how sick of an atrocity Hinduism is upon humanity. If these people would only submit their hearts to Al-Islam and live their lives by the way of Syedna Rasul-e-Akram (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam), they wouldn’t be in half of the predicament they exist in today, with all of their sorrows pointing towards one thing: Hinduism!
- ICNA’s October 1997 edition of its newsletter, The Message, prominently featured an exclusive interview with Syed Salahuddin Ahmed, the Supreme Commander of Hizbul Mujahideen, a terrorist organization that advocates a violent armed struggle against India in Kashmir. Ahmed is also on the National Investigation Agency’s (NIA) Most Wanted list. In the interview, Ahmed proudly and optimistically describes the success of the Jihadi struggle against India:
The situation by the Grace of Allah, is very optimistic and most encouraging…And by the Grace of Almighty Allah, Kashmiri mujahideen have been vigorously engaging in open combat for the last seven years, resulting in the total loss of 20,000 troops of India, including four big generals, four to five brigadier-colonels (sic), and more than 250 major and captain-ranking people.
- In the December 1997 edition of The Message, ICNA openly glorified Jibril Abu-Adam (born Lawrence Nicholas Thomas) as a ‘shaheed’ (martyr) in the name of Jihad in Kashmir. Abu-Adam, who trained at terrorist camps in Pakistan, was killed in a skirmish in Kashmir along with other terrorists who had crossed over from Pakistan. The newsletter stated: “It is quite evident that Jibril’s struggles were motivated by devotion to Allah (SWT). Clear signs that the conflict in Kashmir is jihad are numerous.” The article goes on to glorify the terrorist act further:
On 26 October 1997, at the village of Doda in Kashmir, there was a skirmish. Thirty-four Indian soldiers were killed, and four Muslims became shaheed (martyrs). Allahu Akbar! Among those who became shaheed was Jibril, Insha’ Allah. (It is reported from reliable sources that Jibril was responsible for killing 17 of the 34 Hindu fighters.) [Comments original]
The newsletter then concludes how Jibril was honored at the ICNA Southeastern Regional Convention in Atlanta:
On 29 November 1997, a plaque was presented to Jibril’s family during the ICNA Southeastern Regional Convention in Atlanta. The inscription reads: Think not of those who are killed in Allah’s Cause as dead. Nay they are alive with their Lord and have their provision (Qur’an 3:169). In recognition of Jibril Abu-Adam (also known as Lawrence Nicolas Thomas) [comments original] for his devotion to His Creator and his ultimate sacrifice on behalf of his fellow Muslims in Kashmir.
(b) Omar Khalidi
Omar Khalidi was one of the founding members and an ideologue IAMC. Khalidi routinely viewed Hindus and the Indian state with suspicion. He considered the Archaeological Survey of India, the official archaeology department of India, as “Handmaidens of Hindutva” that manufacture dubious evidence in support of claims that numerous medieval monuments were built upon Hindu, Jain and Buddhist temples. Thus, when the ASI made important discoveries and unearthed fresh evidence supporting the destruction of important Hindu/Buddhist/Jain sites by Muslim invaders and kings, Khalidi blamed them for being biased against Muslims.
According to Khalidi, British Indian Muslims lack significant political unity “partly because many were marginalized at ‘home’, and partly due to the replication of ‘home’ identities based on regional culture and sectarian affiliation.” According to Khalidi then, Indian Muslims are facing some sort of identity crisis and lack of political will in the UK owing to their “repression” back in India. Identity and other problems are thus to be traced back to and blamed on “Hindu extremists” running India. Khalidi urged British Indian Muslims to overcome this and unite for a greater political clout. Alas, Khalidi and others in the IAMC and CAG will quickly censure Hindus for some sort of “right-wing conspiracy” if they organize successfully in India, UK or the US.
In 2009, Khalidi wrote an article in Outlook India magazine called Why India is Not a Secular State. The article laid out highly selective examples to conclude how the Indian state “actually privileges Hinduism over other religions and religious communities.” Khalidi calls the Indian Constitution a “concern of the Brahmin establishment” and thinks that “[the] motive of the Constitution writers was obvious: to prevent the conversion of Dalits to Christianity or Islam, to ‘reform’ Hinduism to make it palatable to the former untouchables.” He then goes on to write about how “Christian missions and churches have been under attack [for] decades” and how “[hundreds] of mosques are in illegal possession nationwide including in New Delhi, where scores are occupied by the central government.” Similarly, he selectively describes discrimination against Muslims in employment, army as well as in the general cultural atmosphere. According to Khalidi, “[the] ban on cow slaughter deprived thousands of butchers their livelihood even as it stole millions of poor their only source of inexpensive protein. Cow may be sacred to the upper castes, but not so to the Christians, Dalits, and Muslims.” Will Khalidi say the same thing about the virtual ban on pork in countries of the Middle East? In fact, consumption of pork is severely restricted in Islamic countries such as Iran, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan because it is forbidden in Islam.
Mohib Ahmad, founder of Indian Muslims Blog, offers a rebuttal to Khalidi’s article in Outlook. Ahmad states that Khalidi “selectively picks and chooses dots to create an ugly picture and then presents it as reality. It is as if Dr. Khalidi has come up with a checklist of carefully drawn items that he keeps checking till he reaches the conclusion that India is not secular.” Ahmad also notes:
Dr. Khalidi quotes [the] Hindu Marriage Act (1955) to buttress his claim [of] legislative preference shown to Hinduism…. In reality, some of the biggest critics of the Act were conservative Hindus, including Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh [RSS] leaders. If the Act was just an attempt to co-opt Sikhs, Jains and Buddhists into the fold of Hinduism, as Dr Khalidi suggests, wouldn’t Hindu leaders have welcomed it with open arms?
On the issue of cultural and racial discrimination argued by Khalidi, Ahmad shares the following thoughts:
Indian Muslims, by any stretch of imagination, are not in the same discriminatory situation as blacks were in USA. The community would do well not to pay heed to Dr. Khalidi who, instead of encouraging them to strive for their rights, if and when denied, within a democratic set-up, is curiously bent on proving that they don’t have a chance anyway. Dr. Khalidi’s essay is an affront to all those Indians who are fighting for the rights of fellow Indians – including those Indians who suffered in Delhi 1984 and Gujarat 2002 – every day to make India a better country. It is an insult to millions and millions of Muslims – like my grandfather – who chose to stay in India because they believed in the idea of India.
Khalidi also conveniently ignores the fact that Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar, one of the most important personalities who fought discrimination and untouchability in Indian society, was one of the drafters of the Indian Constitution. However, Khalidi’s agenda is clear in that he is merely interested in a pejorative view of India and Hinduism.
Section 1.02 Biased Stances of IAMC
This section provides a glimpse on some of the events organized by IAMC and point out how IAMC propagates its prejudiced views about the Indian state.
- In 2008, IAMC organized a lecture tour of Teesta Setalvad and R.B. Sreekumar to discuss their continued efforts to bring “justice” to the victims of the 2002 Gujarat riots. Setalvad’s infatuation with so-called “Hindu Communalism” is well known and she is a favorite source of information for IAMC, FOIL and various members of CAG. However, it is important to note that Setalvad has been found guilty by Indian authorities of cooking up facts related to the Gujarat riots. She has also accepted political contributions by the Congress Party of India to spew venom against the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) during elections.
- During April and May of 2010, IAMC organized an 11-city lecture tour on human rights in India, featuring Shafeeq Rehman Mahajir and Mukul Sinha. Both are described as “…two of the most prominent Human Rights lawyers in India”. Mukul Sinha is a favorite of IAMC and other members of the CAG thanks to his role in “exposing” the human rights violations against minorities in Gujarat. Sinha’s dangerous views and Maoist leanings are discussed in Section 5.06under the 2010 MIT Workshop organized by Omar Khalidi. The April/May IAMC event was introduced with the following line:
In the past several decades India has witnessed mass violence in its various forms including riots, massacres, pogroms and terror attacks (Nellie massacre; anti-Sikh massacres; Ayodhya riots; Bombay bomb blasts; Gujarat pogroms; Orissa riots; Mumbai terror attacks; etc. to quote few).
However, the two speakers and the topics mainly focused on incidents involving Hindu attackers and the failure of the Indian state to provide sufficient protection to minorities. Such events give severely lopsided views about the situation in India.
- In 2011, IAMC organized a multi-city tour of Harsh Dobhal of Human Rights Law Network (HRLN), discussed in Chapter 9, for various lectures and discussions on Muslims and the Criminal Justice System in India. (Dobhal’s Maoist/Communist connections as well as Christian donors are also brought to light in Friends of South Asia here.) Dobhal’s HRLN is also known for its skewed approach in highlighting the “evil acts” of Hindus and the Indian government against minorities. In fact, the event announcement on the IAMC website poses the following questions: “Whether [overrepresentation of Muslims in Indian jails] is the result of profiling by law enforcement or the lack of legal representation for Muslims? Or is it a reflection on societal problems in dealing with class and religion?” Hence, the event has a prejudiced agenda from the beginning – over-representation of Muslims in Indian jails is either due to discrimination by law enforcement agencies owing to lack of legal representation or due to some discrimination based on class/religion by the “upper caste right-wing rulers of India”. It cannot be due to other factors. For example, as Omair Ahmad, a Muslim author and activist, points out, one reason that more Muslims are in jails is that the Muslim population of India is concentrated in four states – “Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and Assam, which account for 21% of convicted prisoners and 42% of undertrials (sic) in India jails.” Thus, the Muslim population is concentrated in the states where more people go to jail in general. Ahmad also remarks that “proportionately more Muslims are adjudged ‘innocent’ than Hindus (whose undertrial (sic) to convict ratio is: 69.6% to 70.7% and even Christians (whose undertrial (sic) to convict ratio is 3.8% to 4.2%).” However, given the biased stances of Dobhal and IAMC, such facts are dismissed.
- On July 13, 2011, IAMC issued a press release regarding the bomb blasts in Mumbai. While it condemned the blasts, it also cautioned everyone against rushing to quick judgments until more facts came out, rather than labeling Islamic extremists as culprits: “Several bomb blasts in recent years led to innocent youth from a specific community being thrown into prison, and still struggling to secure justice, even after the real masterminds confessed.”
While the above is a fair statement as no one should prejudge and blame crimes on a particular community, IAMC is not so lenient when it comes to blaming the Hindus. On June 30, 2011, IAMC issued a Press release condemning the “intimidation” of ANHAD, the NGO started by Shabnam Hashmi and whose trustees include Harsh Mander and KM Pannikar. IAMC blindly pronounces the other side (i.e. the officials of the Gujarat government) guilty of harassment and calls it “a characteristic of totalitarian regimes in other parts of the world.” It also goes on to mention that such “intimidation is unfortunately part of an alarming trend of harassment (sic) of human rights defenders such as Teesta Setalvad, Binayak Sen and Fr. Cedric Prakash.” Father Cedric Prakash is a Jesuit priest operating as a human rights activist in Gujarat. Prakash is a popular face within various circles that routinely hold India guilty of oppression of Christians, Muslims and Dalits. Prakash is also known for exaggerating facts to fit his agenda. For example, in August 2010, Prakash submitted a written testimonial to the controversial US Commission on International Religious Freedom, in which he intentionally lied that “more than 2,000 Muslims have been killed” in the riots of Gujarat. Official government records and even reports by independent bodies show that the number was between 1,000 and 2,000 people, and not all were Muslims. Prakash, who claims to “champion human rights and freedom of all religions”, ignores the fact that the number included over 250 Hindus; also, some 59 Hindus, including women and children, were burnt to death in Godhra, and this incident sparked the riots in Gujarat. While it is sad that many Muslims were killed in the riots, why do Prakash, Setalvad, Hashmi and other “human rights activists” ignore the plight of Hindus, including women and children? Are little children considered “fascist Hindus” and therefore dispensable? Further still, why are they reporting blatantly false information?
- In April 2006, IAMC created a “Special Digest” on the former BJP-led government, titled “Corruption, Scams and Scandals of the BJP Government.” The Digest contains a litany of articles, opinions, etc. of the various corruption issues during the BJP-led alliance government’s reign in India. As expected, the coverage has a clear political tilt. Moreover, some of the major articles are written by the usual suspects, such as Vijay Prashad and Biju Mathew of FOIL (“Hindutva for a Few Dollars a Day”) and Harkishan Singh Surjeet, former General Secretary of the Communist Party of Indian (Marxist) (“BJP’s Corrupt Face Once Again Bared, Corruption Charges Against BJP Govt; The Day of Reckoning is Not Far Away”).
The BJP lost the national elections against the Congress in 2006. The Congress government has been in power in India since then. Unfortunately, the IAMC, which considers itself a defender of India’s freedom, democracy and pluralism, has never come up with such a “Digest” or any special coverage of instances of the massive corruption, human rights violations or other issues under the Congress government. Consider the 2G spectrum scandal of 2010, one of the largest scams in India’s history: “[Comptroller and Auditor General of India], the state auditor, estimated India may have lost up to $39 billion in revenue – equivalent to the Defence (sic) budget – because of violations during the allocation process.” What about the Commonwealth Games scandal, a major embarrassment for India on the world scene? What about the Adarsh Housing Society scam, which led to the resignation of the Congress Chief Minister of Maharashtra Ashok Chavan? What about the Oil for Food Program scandal involving Congress minister Natwar Singh? What about the Bofors scandal involving bigwigs of the Congress government such as Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi? On November 19, 1991, Schweizer Illustrierte, one of the most popular Swiss magazines, declared, after an investigation, that according to Russian spy agency KGB’s records “Sonia Gandhi, widow of Rajiv Gandhi, was controlling a secret account with 2.5 billion Swiss francs (equal to $2.2 billion) in her minor son’s name.” Similarly, the KGB records also indicated that “the Gandhi family has accepted political pay-offs from the KGB – a clear case of treason besides bribe.” The Congress government has also had more indictments of the highest Cabinet officials than any other government in the history of India, including those of the BJP-led ones.
IAMC’s silence on the Congress government only reinforces the fact that it is politically biased and not a patriotic Indian organization. Could it be that, since the Congress government is seen as generally sympathetic to Muslims and Christians, any of its wrongdoings, no matter how big, can be ignored at the expense of the poor people of India? Does the IAMC not care that when billions of Indian rupees are skimmed away from India, poor people (both Muslims and Hindus) bear the biggest brunt? Or is it that the IAMC does not really care about poor Muslims?
Section 1.03 2003 IAMC Convention
In 2003, IAMC organized its first-ever convention in Washington, D.C. In the convention announcement, IAMC noted that “an impressive array of speakers from vastly diverse backgrounds will assemble to hold groundbreaking discussions on issues related to human rights, sectarian violence, militant nationalism and social amity in India.” Besides the lack of any speaker to express counter opinions, the dubious diversity can be seen through the roster of speakers. According to the convention announcement, the prominent speakers included, among others, Fr. Cedric Prakash, Praful Bidwai, Dr. Lise McKean, Dr. K.P. Singh, Dr. Angana Chatterji, Smita Narula, P. D. John, Dr. Hari Sharma, and Raju Rajagopal.
This report has already discussed Cedric Prakash and Angana Chatterji. And, Dr. Hari Sharma was the president of the International South Asia Forum (INSAF), while Raju Rajagopal is the president of Coalition Against Communalism (CAC), according to the announcement. CAC and INSAF are members of CAG discussed here and here respectively.
Journalist Yatindra Bhatnagar, in writing a summary of the conference, made some interesting observations that highlight the biased nature of the convention:
It was obvious that everything was blatantly one-sided. When I accosted one of the speakers, Satchit Balsari, about his ignoring the stories of, and interviews with, Hindu victims of Godhra, he admitted that he had not done so.
I accosted Praful Bidwai also who had implied that all the alleged social and economic disasters in India are because of Hindutva and Hindu BJP-led governments. He first tried to evade, run away and ignore but, when squarely confronted, admitted that he did not blame the BJP for all the ills, the Congress party was also guilty.
Later, I asked Smita Narula of Human Rights Watch why she had not included a single interview with a Hindu victim of Godhra train burning? She tried to sidestep the issue. She also admitted the lapse, but said something she wanted off the record. I am not divulging the reason she gave for the oversight, but the excuse seems absolutely unconvincing.
(a) Praful Bidwai
Praful Bidwai is a left-wing political activist in India and founder-member of the Coalition for Nuclear Disarmament and Peace. He is also a favorite of IAMC, FOIL and other members of the CAG. Bidwai has written several articles on FOIL’s website and his articles are predictably recommended by FOIL and its sister organizations. As the US planned to strike the Taliban and Al Qaeda in the aftermath of the September 2001 terrorist attacks, Bidwai issued a strong note condemning such “unilateral action” and chastising India for supporting the US while deploring the Vajpayee (BJP) government’s willingness to compromise India’s sovereignty. Bidwai also blindly endorsed the highly biased report compiled by Campaign to Stop Funding Hate (CSFH) on Indian American charity IDRF, and wrongly accused the charity of diverting money to “finance violent activities in Gujarat state, which in early 2002 witnessed a pogrom of Muslims.” Bidwai, in line with the whole CAG nexus, is highly selective in his analysis about the 2002 riots as well as about the CSFH report itself.
(b) Lise McKean
Malhotra and Neelakandan (2011) document Lise McKean’s hatred toward Hindus and India at length: “Whenever there is unrest in India, she shows up as a commentator to educate American audiences about what is wrong with Indian culture.” In her book, Divine Enterprise: Gurus and the Hindu Nationalist Movement (1995, University of Chicago Press), “She associates everything even remotely connected with Hindu spirituality (such as a cement advertisement featuring a yogi) to the ominous image of Hindu nationalism.” McKean doesn’t even spare the well-respected the Divine Life Society in Rishikesh, India. According to her:
The respectability of the Divine Life Society, no less than sensationalisation (sic) of guru scandals and human sacrifice, however, tends to obfuscate the problem this book addresses: the relation of gurus, religious organizations, and rituals to circuits of power and domination in India.
Similarly, she accuses Mahatma Gandhi of belonging to a “lineage of Hindu nationalists.” She resonates with the Christian right’s demand that US foreign policy be based on protecting the specific interests of non-Hindus in India.
(c) KP Singh
KP Singh is a Dalit activist in India who works with the Christian right wing and evangelical organizations to malign Hinduism and India. He is also associated with PIFRAS (Policy Institute for Religion and State) of Washington, DC. PIFRAS, discussed here, is known for its right-wing Christian leanings and has organized several conferences aimed at highlighting “human rights issues” in India with a strong bias in favor of Christian evangelical efforts in India. At a 2002 symposium on South Asia organized by PIFRAS, Singh made a highly unsubstantiated claim that “since India’s independence, about three million Dalit women have been raped and one million Dalits have been killed.”
Similarly, Malhotra and Neelakandan note:
In 2004, on the eve of India’s general elections, PIFRAS, along with the Center for the History of Religious and Political Pluralism (University of Leicester, England), organized a panel discussion on ‘India’s National Elections and US Foreign Policy Interests’, where Marxist historian Ram Puniyani was the invited speaker along with Mr. John Prabhudoss, executive director of PIFRAS. The main position presented was that India’s 40 million Christians are threatened by ‘Hindu state governments’ that have passed laws to hold evangelism accountable for coercion.
In 2008, Singh was one of the main organizers of the International Convention of Dalits and Minorities in New York “to discuss problems faced by Indian minorities and Dalits and find amicable solutions”, yet another example of collusion between various players in the highly popular anti-India/anti-Hindu workspace. The conference also featured Teesta Setalvad as one of the main speakers who spoke on “communal combat in the villages and human rights.” Ezra Sargunam, the head of the Evangelical Church of India, was also a key speaker. (Sargunam is further discussed along with FIACONA here).
(d) P.D. John (John Prabhudoss)
P.D. John is actually John Prabhudoss, the Executive Director of PIFRAS. (Both are discussed in depth in here.)
(e) Smita Narula
Smita Narula is an associate Professor of Law and a Faculty Director of the Center for Human Rights and Global Justice (CHRGJ) at the school of Law at New York University. She has written extensively on the “atrocities against Christians and Dalits” in India and naturally takes a very dim view of Hinduism. She considers caste as a “defining feature of Hinduism” in her book Broken People: Caste Violence against India’s ‘Untouchables’ (1999, Human Rights Watch). Her writings and testimonials serve as ammunition for many Christian organizations that disguise themselves as fighters of Dalit human rights.
For example, Narula co-founded the International Dalit Solidarity Network (IDSN) in 2000, based in the Netherlands. IDSN is a powerful organization that works with several Christian evangelical organizations around the world to produce atrocity literature equating the Caste System to racial theories. IDSN and CHRGJ have jointly issued several reports and statements to highlight the atrocities on Dalits in India, Nepal and other South Asian countries. But, IDSN’s true motives are highlighted by Malhotra and Neelakandan (2011). “The group believes that equating caste with race will open the floodgates to international interventions in India’s internal affairs that would help Christian conversions [emphasis added], and it makes the false claim that Indian Christianity does not suffer from caste biases.”
In a 2013 interview with The New York Times, IDSN’s coordinator Rikke Nohrlind made the erroneous claim that while caste discrimination can be found in Muslim and Christian communities, “…in South Asia caste discrimination has its roots in Hindu philosophy and is sanctioned by the religion.”
“In 2007, pressured by the sustained anti-India campaigning, the UN selected India as the first[emphasis author’s] country to be reviewed for human rights violations.” IDSN worked with the CHRGJ and the National Campaign for Dalit Human Rights [NCDHR] and others organizations like the Lutheran World Federation to submit its own report on India.
Narula is also affiliated with the Indian Institute of Dalit Studies (IIDS), along with David Haslam of the Dalit Solidarity Network of UK. Martin Macwan, of Dalit Shakti Kendra, is the Founding Director, Chairman and Permanent Trustee of IIDS. Macwan is also the National Convener for the National Campaign of Dalit Human Rights (NCDHR). In 2001, he wrote a lengthy letter to the UN’s Third Participatory Committee to World Conference Against Racism and argued for equating caste discrimination to racism and thus call out India’s record against racial prejudice.
“[Narula] also participated in the DFN [Dalit Freedom Network] briefing before the US Congress, under a resolution introduced by right-wing Trent Franks (who is on the DFN board), asking the US government to pressure India on caste discrimination.” DFN’s evangelical connections are mentioned under FOIL, here ,and are also discussed in more detail under FIACONA, here.
Finally, Narula is well connected with the inner circle of FOIL and the radical leftists in the New York City area. In 2006, Raza Mir and Ali Mir, veteran members of FOIL, INSAF and CSFH, wrote a short book called Anthems of Resistance: A Celebration of Progressive Urdu Poetry (2006, IndiaInk).In the Acknowledgements section, they provide a list the prominent members of YSS, FOIL, FOSA, CSFH, INSAF, SINGH Foundation and many others. Narula is mentioned along with others like Ashwini Rao, Biju Mathew Sekhar Ramakrishnan, Rupal Oza, etc. Rupal Oza, a professor at Hunter College in Manhattan and an old-time FOIL member, also acknowledges Narula as part of the inner circle in her book The Making of Neoliberal India: Nationalism, Gender, and the Paradoxes of Globalization (2012, Routledge).
Section 1.04 2005 IAMC Convention
In 2005, IAMC organized its third annual convention in Detroit, Michigan. The list of speakers, among others, included Fr. Cedric Prakash, Omar Khalidi (who was introduced as an Indian Muslim historian and scholar at MIT), Biju Mathew (who was representing the Campaign to Stop Funding Hate), Raju Rajagopal (who was introduced as belonging to an organization called Promise of India), Shrikumar Poddar (who was introduced as a distinguished Hindu scholar), John Prabhudoss, Lise McKean and many others. Shrikumar Poddar’s activities and the so-called “Hindu” organizations are unmasked here while Raju Rajagopal is discussed here.
Congressman John Conyers, who gave the keynote speech and accepted the Malik Al-Shabazz Award from IAMC, equated the struggle of Indian Muslims and other persecuted minorities in India to that of the Civil Rights movement led by Martin Luther King, Jr. This is yet another attempt to superimpose racially based discrimination in US on to the internal social issues of India and follows the same pattern of demonizing Hindus and India usually practiced by the radical leftist and evangelical constituents of CAG. In the same convention, Khalidi declared: “What is good for India is good for Indian Muslims and what is good for Indian Muslims is good for India.” While such statements are not considered “communal” by IAMC or any of the other CAG members, a similar utterance from a Hindu leader would be deemed extremist/fascist.
During the convention, Biju Mathew was given the Tipu Sultan Award for “courageously serving India and India’s interests” while Raju Rajagopal was given the Bahadur Shah Zafar Award for “promoting pluralism and communal harmony in India.”
Section 1.05 2008 IAMC Convention
The 2008 IAMC Convention focused on the theme of “The Idea of India: Challenges and Prospects.” However, the idea was to again cast India and Hindus as oppressors of minorities. In yet another malicious attempt to equate clashes in India with the civil rights movement in the US, Congressman Keith Ellison “described the struggle of Indian Muslims as parallel to the struggle of other groups in United States who have fought for civil rights.” Similarly, the convention featured various screenings of documentaries such as “Impunity: A Roadblock to Justice”, “Encountered on Saffron Agenda?”, and “In the Name of God”, along with a documentary on Dalits. Another panel on “Strengthening India’s Secular Democracy” featured Angana Chatterji and Omar Khalidi. Chatterji was then awarded the Tipu Sultan Award for “Courageously Serving India.”
Earlier, in 2004, Kaleem Kawaja (discussed here), received the Tipu Sultan Award for the same service as Chatterji while Shrikumar Poddar received the Bahadur Shah Zafar Award “[for] promoting pluralism and communal harmony in India.”
Section 1.06 2010 MIT Workshop
In April of 2010, Omar Khalidi of IAMC organized a highly contentious workshop at MIT called Group Violence, Terrorism, and Impunity – Challenges to Secularism and Rule of Law in India. The workshop is yet another illustration of partnerships between CAG constituents and other organizations to portray India as a serious violator of human rights of minorities, especially Muslims, and the “ruling Hindus” as perpetrators of atrocities against Muslims, Christians and Dalits. India’s local, state and national governments, all democratically elected, are hence dragged by the hair and lambasted in such workshops.
The introduction to the conference states:
In recent decades, group violence, especially communal violence, has become a recurrent theme in the lives of Indians in many parts of the country. Starting with the Nellie, Assam, massacre of Muslims in 1983, (the) anti-Sikh massacres in 1984, communal violence has continued to challenge India’s secular credentials in the Ayodhya riots (1992), Bombay bomb blasts (1993), (the) Gujarat pogrom (2002), and the Orissa riots (2008). There is a rising phenomenon of terrorism, as seen in the Mumbai terror attacks (2008), which lead to societal and State responses that centrally challenge secularism and the rule of law. There is a dire need to study these forms of violence and the impunity enjoyed by its perpetrators.
The above paragraph is itself an evidence of an already prejudiced agenda of the workshop. While it is true that all these events did occur in India, only the “Hindu atrocities” are highlighted. In addition, the government crackdown on Jihadi terrorism in India is labeled as a challenge to secularism and the rule of law. There is no mention, again, of the involvement of Muslims, Islamic terrorists or Christian missionaries in these riots and clashes. The ethnic cleansing of Kashmiri Pandits in the late 1980s is completely ignored, along with Christian terrorism in Northeastern India. And, Maoist terrorism, one of the biggest threats to modern India, is also noticeably missing as a topic. While the 2002 Godhra riots are a favorite subject of CAG and its partners, they conveniently sideline a similar incident in 2003 on Marad Beach of the Kozhikode district of the Indian state of Kerala.
On 2 May 2003, in the early evening, eight Hindus were hacked to death by a Muslim mob on the beach after reeling in their catch for the day. The killers then escaped into the local Juma Masjid. The Marad enquiry commission’s (Justice Thomas P Joseph) report notes the submission of then Kozhikode Police Commissioner T K Vinod Kumar that hundreds of local Muslim women converged on the mosque to prevent the police from entering it to catch the attackers.
The judicial inquiry also implicated the Muslim League for its clear role in the Marad massacre and affirmed “a clear communal conspiracy, with ‘Muslim fundamentalist and terrorist’ organisations (sic) involved.” Muslim League leaders such as C. Mayin Haji and P.P. Moideen Koya were also named in the report and were aware of the conspiracy to kill Hindus. Curiously, this incident was never brought up by “human rights” activists such as Teesta Setalvad, Shabnam Hashmi, Harsh Mander and many others. Could it be that this was a clear implication of a Muslim body versus a Hindu body and hence not a threat to secularism according to the definition of IAMC and its partners?
In addition, the conference featured several anti-India/anti-Hindu speakers, including Angana Chatterji.
For example, Chinnaiah Jangam, another speaker at the MIT workshop, discussed the atrocities on Dalits in India. In this paper, Jangam blamed all the Dalit problems on Hinduism as well as the Indian state. In fact, an abstract of his paper states:
Therefore this paper further complicates the role of Indian state and its neutral and secular role to understand the cultural and ideological roots that are entrenched within the Hindu ideological consciousness which thereby interpret the atrocities against Dalits as a part of the caste Hindu social process rather than violation of fundamental human rights of its citizens.
Mukul Sinha was another speaker at the workshop. Sinha is a Gujarat-based lawyer and one of the founding members of the Jan Sangharsh Manch. Interestingly, in 2005, he was awarded the “Human Rights Lawyer of the Year” by Combat Law. Combat Law is the magazine run by Harsh Dobhal (who is discussed in Chapter 9). Sinha’s communist leanings are clear as he advocates “the urgent need for mass struggles against American imperialism” in India. Sinha lashes out against the hardworking Patel community of Gujarat and the Patel NRI communities of the US and UK and accuses the entire community of participating in and financing genocides on Muslims. Without an inkling of proof, Sinha states that:
[The] Patels began sponsoring a number of Hindu religious outfits and backing Hindutva organisations in the state, thus presenting themselves as ardent Hindus and, therefore, as ‘high’ castes. One aspect of that newly constructed identity as super-Hindus was a deep hostility towards Muslims. In fact, the Patels, who comprise more than 30% of the Gujarati population, played a major role in the 2002 anti-Muslim genocide [emphasis added].
Sinha also shares the same penchant as Teesta Setalvad, Shaik Ubaid and others for cooking up facts and declares that “thousands of Muslims were killed in the genocide of 2002.” The number of Muslim deaths was certainly not in the thousands and even Hindus had died during the 2002 riots.
Another speaker, Meenakshi Ganguly, focused on Terrorism and Counter Terrorism in India: Illegal Detention, Torture and Killings of Terror Suspects. While she starts off by discussing terrorism and violence from various groups including Maoists, Hindu extremists, and Muslims extremists, her focus quickly shifts to the criminalization of Indian government and its treatment of Muslims. She surmises that “the Indian government’s response [to terrorism] illustrates a disturbing trend: grave human rights violations are committed as security forces attempt to identify the perpetrators. Abuses occur at every stage of the investigation.”
 http://iamc.com/about/. Accessed January 2, 2014
The “Confirmed Speakers” list in the following brochure of IAMC’s first convention lists Ubaid as the “Founding President of IAMC and IMANNET: http://iamc.com/files/2003convention_flier.pdf. Accessed January 3, 2014
 For example, the January 15, 2003 IAMC Press release mentions Ubaid as the president of IMC-USA and the main contact person. http://iamc.com/press-release/indian_muslim_council_condemns_attack_on_us_missionary/. Accessed January 3, 2014
 See the following August 5, 2012 Press release by Shaik Sayeed and Shaik Ubaid condemning the attack on Sikh gurdwara in Milwaukee. http://epfnational.org/uncategorized/muslim-and-immigrant-advocacy-organizations-condemn-milwaukee-sikh-temple-massacre/. Accessed January 3, 2014
 “MUSLIM and IMMIGRANT ADVOCACY ORGANIZATIONS CONDEMN MILWAUKEE SIKH TEMPLE MASSACRE”, August 5, 2012, http://epfnational.org/uncategorized/muslim-and-immigrant-advocacy-organizations-condemn-milwaukee-sikh-temple-massacre/. Accessed January 3, 2014
 See the following archived link in the Wayback Machine Internet Archive at https://web.archive.org/web/20030815095159/http://imannet.com/about/. Accessed January 4, 2014
 https://www.facebook.com/pages/Imannet/500171056704310. Accessed January 4, 2014
 See www.imannet.com as of January 4, 2014 as well as Google Cached Page as of December 31, 2013 at http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:1iSqyXQMyOAJ:www.imannet.com/+&cd=2&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us.
 See the following May 22, 2013 news article where Ubaid is mentioned as president of ImanNet. http://muslimmirror.com/eng/indian-american-rights-group-condemns-attack-on-khalid-mujahids-lawyer/. Accessed January 4, 2014
 See the following February 22, 2013 news article where Ubaid comments on behalf of ImanNet while Ahsan Khan comments on behalf of IAMC. http://twocircles.net/2013feb22/hyderabad_blasts_indian_muslims_concerned_about_witchhunt.html. Accessed January 4, 2014
 See the following 2008 letter sent by members of CAG to President Obama protesting Sonal Shah’s appointment to the President’s Transition Team. ImanNet signs its name right above IMC-USA. http://www.sacw.net/index.php?page=imprimir_articulo&id_article=393. Accessed January 4, 2014
 https://web.archive.org/web/20040524195133/http://imannet.com/. Accessed January 4, 2014
 Redirect details are available at the following link: https://web.archive.org/web/20110802124232/http://www.imannet.com/. Accessed January 4, 2014
 Redirect details are available at the following link: https://web.archive.org/web/20060831141037/http://imannet.com/. Accessed January 4, 2014
 Redirect details are available at the following link: https://web.archive.org/web/20070624015052/http://www.imannet.com/. Accessed January 4, 2014
 Redirect details are available at the following link: https://web.archive.org/web/20081120002737/http://www.imannet.com/. Accessed January 4, 2014
 See copy of the information booklet at https://web.archive.org/web/20040626135029/http://imannet.com/action/iman0602.pdf. Accessed January 4, 2014
 Shaik Ubaid, “Rescuing Indian Muslims”, July 2002, PakistanLink, archived at https://web.archive.org/web/20080929193818/http://www.pakistanlink.com/Opinion/2002/July/12/07.html. Accessed January 4, 2014
 Ubaid, ibid
 “Letter to President-Elect Barack Obama from Coalition of Concerned Indian Americans”, Coalition Against Genocide, December 8, 2008, http://www.sacw.net/article393.html. Accessed January 3, 2014
 According to Search of “Indian Muslim Council – USA”, File Number 65000725 on the Illinois Secretary of State website at http://www.ilsos.gov/corporatellc/CorporateLlcController. Accessed January 3, 2014
 See reference to Syed Azmatullah Quadri on Page 3 of the November 2012 Newsletter of the Muslim Community Center at http://www.mccchicago.org/downloads/newsletter-november-2012.pdf. Accessed January 3, 2014
 Paul John, “Cops had SIMI email intercepts in 2001”, The Times of India, August 23, 2008, http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2008-08-23/ahmedabad/27923538_1_simi-activist-muslim-brotherhood-abdulhai-abdulsattar-silavat. Accessed January 3, 2014
 “Students Islamic Movement of India (SIMI): Incidents and Statements involving SIMI: 2013, 2000-2012”, South Asia Terrorism Portal, http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/terroristoutfits/simi.htm. Accessed January 3, 2014.
 Pranab Dhal Samanta, “Taliban’s Mullah Omar our new inspiration, not Osama: jailed SIMI chief”, The Indian Express, April 12, 2008, http://www.indianexpress.com/news/talibans-mullah-omar-our-new-inspiration-n/296201/. Accessed January 3, 2014
 Samanta, ibid
 See the following New Article in the Daily News, http://www.nydailynews.com/archives/news/new-moon-begins-islam-holy-month-article-1.766434 . Accessed January 3, 2014
 See Interview of Shaik Ubaid in October 1995 Edition of The Message archived at the following link: http://www.investigativeproject.org/documents/misc/689.pdf. Accessed January 4, 2014
 http://pir.org/domains/org-domain/?domain=icna&submitted=results&random=6rt5l8us4pmqwxm8b9z781yp97jo7533nnxyliig&password=wbwrph#domain_form. Accessed January 4, 2014. In addition, a Wayback Machine Archive search of ICNA’s old website also mentions Farrukh Raza as incharge of the web development team – https://web.archive.org/web/19990221161632/http://www.icna.com/team.html. Accessed January 4, 2014
 See the screenshots #5 and #6 retrieved by Americans Against Hate.org at http://www.americansagainsthate.org/HamasDonorICNA.htm. Accessed January 3, 2014
 Arpi, Claude. India and Her Neighbourhood: A French Observer’s Views. (2005: Har-Anand Publications Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi). pp. 106-107, retrieved online at http://books.google.com/books?id=wtz_VTk0fucC&pg=PA106#v=onepage&q&f=false. Accessed January 4, 2014
 Arpi, ibid
 https://web.archive.org/web/20010917031035/http://www.jamaat.org/links/links.html. Accessed January 3, 2014
 https://web.archive.org/web/20010917045929/http://www.geocities.com/~abdulwahid/hinduism/index.html. Accessed January 3, 2014
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NIA_Most_Wanted. Accessed January 3, 2014
 “Kashmiri Commander Speaks”, The Message, October 1997, p. 28, pages archived at http://www.investigativeproject.org/documents/misc/485.pdf. Accessed January 3, 2014
 Ama F. Shabazz, “Action Speak Louder Than Words”, The Message, December 1997, p. 32, pages archived at http://www.investigativeproject.org/documents/misc/348.pdf. Accessed January 3, 2014
 Shabazz, ibid
 Shabazz, ibid
 In the following article, at a 2010 Annual Fundraising Dinner, former IAMC General Secretary Attaulla Khan praises Omar Khalidi’s contributions to IAMC and acknowledges him as a founding member of IAMC. http://www.muslimlinkpaper.com/myjumla/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2441%3Aevening-for-indian-muslim-advocacy-group-about-accomplishments-expansion&Itemid=17. Accessed January 2, 2014
 Omar Khalidi, “ASI is the handmaiden of Hindutva”, October 1, 2010, rediff.com , http://news.rediff.com/column/2010/oct/01/column-asi-is-the-handmaiden-of-hindutva-writes-omar-khalidi.htm. Accessed January 4, 2014
 Omar Khalidi, “Crescent obscured: Indian Muslims in Britain”, September 8, 2010, twocircles.net, http://twocircles.net/2010sep08/crescent_obscured_indian_muslims_britain.html. Accessed January 2, 2014
 Omar Khalidi, “Why India is Not a Secular State”, January 29, 2009, Outlook India, online edition, http://www.outlookindia.com/article.aspx?239584. Accessed January 4, 2014
 Khalidi, ibid
 Khalidi, ibid
 Khalidi, ibid
 Khalidi, ibid
 Khalidi, ibid
 Mohib Ahmad, “India, Secularism, Whatever”, Outlook India, online edition, February 6, 2009, http://www.outlookindia.com/article.aspx?239647. Accessed January 4, 2014
 Ahmad, ibid
 Ahmad, ibid
 See the March 30, 2010 news article titled “IMC-USA organizes 11-city North American lecture tour on human rights in India” on IAMC’s website at http://iamc.com/news/imc-usa-organizes-11-city-north-american-%C2%ADlecture-tour-on-human-rights-in-india/. Accessed January 4, 2014
 See event announcement titled “Harsh Dobhal Lecture on ‘Muslims and the Criminal Justice System in India’”, July 20, 2011, http://iamc.com/chapters/maryland/harsh-dobhal-lecture-maryland/. Accessed January 4, 2014
 Omair Ahmad, “Counter View: A Few Myths, Fewer Facts about Muslims”, August 16, 2007, http://ibnlive.in.com/news/a-rejoinder-a-few-myths-fewer-facts-about-muslims/46945-3.html?xml. Accessed January 4, 2014
 Omair Ahmad, ibid
 See Press Release titled “IAMC Condemns Bomb Blasts in Mumbai”, July 13, 2011, http://iamc.com/press-release/iamc-condemns-bomb-blasts-in-mumbai/. Accessed January 4, 2014
 See Press rrelease titled “IAMC Condemns Intimidation of Human Rights Organization ANHAD”, June 30, 2011, http://iamc.com/press-release/iamc-condemns-intimidation-of-human-rights-organization-anhad/. Accessed January 4, 2014
 “Recent Communal Violence in Gujarat, India, and the U.S. Response: FR. CEDRIC PRAKASH, SJ Prepared Testimony”, http://www.uscirf.gov/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1802. Accessed January 4, 2014
 “BJP corruption – Corruption, Scams and Scandals of the BJP governments – April 2006 IMC Special Edition Digest”, http://iamc.com/news-digest/bjp_corruption/. Accessed January 4, 2014
 C.J. Kuncheria and Devidutta Tripathi, “What is the 2G scandal all about?”, April 25, 2011, http://in.reuters.com/article/2011/04/25/idINIndia-56552020110425. Accessed January 4, 2014
 S. Gurumurthy, “Zero tolerance, secret billions”, http://expressbuzz.com/opinion/columnists/zero-tolerance-secret-billions/236261.html, January 3, 2011. Copy retrieved from http://defenceforumindia.com/forum/politics-society/17752-secret-billions-sonia-rahul-gandhi-express-article.html on January 4, 2014
 Gurumurthy, ibid
 See Press release titled “IMC-USA to hold first-ever convention of its kind on India-related issues”, http://iamc.com/press-release/imc-usa_to_hold_first_ever_convention_of_its_kind_on_india-related_issues/, June 23, 2003. Accessed January 4, 2014
 Yatindra Bhatnagar, “Hours of Anti-India, Anti-Hindutva Rhetoric at ‘Indian’ Muslim Meet”, July 30, 2003, IMC India, http://india.indymedia.org/en/2003/07/6236.shtml. Accessed January 18, 2014
 http://www.prafulbidwai.org/index.php?pages/About-Praful-Bidwai, accessed January 4, 2014
 See, for example the May 1997 article “Organized Labour (sic)” http://www.proxsa.org/economy/labor/orglabr.html as well as “Sept 11, 2011 CNDP Statement” http://www.proxsa.org/resources/9-11/CNDP-0109-statement.htm. Accessed January 4, 2014
 See Praful Bidwai, “Sept 11, 2011 CNDP Statement”, http://www.proxsa.org/resources/9-11/CNDP-0109-statement.htm; and Praful Bidwai, “Flawed bid to woo overseas Indians”, http://stopfundinghate.org/resources/news/012103AsiaTimes.htm, January 21, 2003. Accessed January 4, 2014
 Praful Bidwai, “Flawed bid to woo overseas Indians”, http://stopfundinghate.org/resources/news/012103AsiaTimes.htm, January 21, 2003. Accessed January 4, 2014
 Malhotra and Neelakandan, 258
 Malhotra and Neelakandan, ibid
 Malhotra and Neelakandan, ibid
 Malhotra and Neelakandan, ibid
 Malhotra and Neelakandan, ibid
 See the symposium program and excerpts at http://www.pifras.org/Programs/Past_Programs/Symp2002/symp2002.html. Accessed January 5, 2014
 Malhotra and Neelakandan 237
 Malhotra and Neelakandan, ibid
 See announcement in the Yahoo Groups India Unity by Singh on Sunday, June 1 2008 at, http://groups.yahoo.com/group/india-unity/message/25406. Accessed January 5, 2014
 See the News Announcement of the Convention at http://www.ambedkartimes.com/the_news.htm. Accessed January 5, 2014
 See main picture featuring Sargunam and others in the article “Historic Dalit-Muslim Convention in New York”, July 17, 2008, http://muslimmedianetwork.com/mmn/?p=2552. Accessed January 5, 2014
 http://chrgj.org/person/smita-narula/. Accessed January 5, 2014
 Smita Narula, “Broken people: Caste violence against India’s ‘untouchables’”, (1999, Human Rights Watch), p. 24. Accessed online on January 5, 2014 at http://books.google.com/books?id=Kd28Ay09adgC&pg=PA196&lpg=PA196&dq=Smita+Narula+hinduism&source=bl&ots=NqOLwzWMme&sig=_lOjSt8EclgEg0TmSxiLuXbHSgY&hl=en&ei=dd4uTvj_G8SugQePm9WRAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CDgQ6AEwBTge#v=snippet&q=Hinduism&f=false
 See Narula’s profile on CHRGJ’s website at http://chrgj.org/person/smita-narula/. Accessed January 21, 2014
 See a list of publications at IDSN’s website archived at https://web.archive.org/web/20090126063510/http://www.idsn.org/news-resources/publications/. Accessed January 5, 2014
 Malhotra and Neelankandan, 310
 Malavika Vyawahare, “A Conversation With: Human Rights Activist Rikke Nöhrlind”, October 13, 2013, The New York Times, accessed online at http://india.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/10/11/a-conversation-with-human-rights-activist-rikke-nhrlind/?_php=true&_type=blogs&_r=0. Accessed January 21, 2014
 Malhotra and Neelankandan , ibid
 Malhotra and Neelankandan, ibid
 See list of Academicians Abroad archived at https://web.archive.org/web/20120906020235/http://www.dalitstudies.org.in/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=75&Itemid=80. Accessed January 5, 2014
 See list of Board of Trustees in the 2007 IIDS Annual Report (page 4) at http://www.dalitstudies.org.in/wp/annual%20report/0307.PDF. Accessed January 6, 2014
 See signatories of “LETTER FROM NCDHR” at http://wcar.alrc.net/mainfile2.php/Urgent+Appeals/37/?print=yes. Accessed January 6, 2014
 Malhotra and Neelakandan, 322
 Mir, Ali Husain and Mir, Raza. Anthems of Resistance: a celebration of Progressive Urdu Poetry, (2006: IndiaInk, New Delhi, India), Acknowledgements, p.ix. Accessed online on January 21, 2014 at http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00urduhindilinks/mirs/00intro.pdf.
 Rupal Oza was a key member of Youth Solidarity Summer (YSS), the youth wing of FOIL and helped organize YSS’99, as seen at the following link: http://www.proxsa.org/yss/yss99/brochure.html. Accessed January 21, 2014
 Oza, Rupal. The Making of Neoliberal India: Nationalism, Gender, and the Paradoxes of Globalization, (2012: Routledge, Oxford, UK), Acknowledgements, p.9. Accessed online on January 21, 2014 at http://books.google.com/books?id=3Uz6tDR5L4gC&pg=PT10&lpg=PT10&dq=smita+narula+youth+solidarity+summer&source=bl&ots=_psGCQ0M7H&sig=Iu2JBUk3rL8TgAbwE48gtM_FESk&hl=en&sa=X&ei=OvPeUtL1KIujsQSnoIGgDg&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=smita%20narula%20youth%20solidarity%20summer&f=false
 See Press release titled “IMC-USA reveals an impressive array of speakers for its third annual convention”, May 9, 2008, http://iamc.com/press-release/_imc-usa__reveals_an_impressive_array_of_speakers_for_its_third__annual_convention/. Accessed January 6, 2014
 “IMC-USA Convention A Huge Success”, October 7, 2005, http://www.countercurrents.org/india-imc071005.htm. Accessed January 6, 2014
 “IMC Awards”, http://pakistanlink.org/Community/2005/Oct05/07/10.HTM, accessed January 6, 2014
 See Press release titled “IMC-USA National Convention a Huge Success; ‘Idea of India’ Theme Grips Audience, June 1, 2008, http://iamc.com/press-release/imc-usa_national_convention_a_huge_success/. Accessed January 6, 2014
 See Press release titled “IMC-USA announces annual awards for excellence in services”, July 20, 2004, http://iamc.com/conventions/imc-usa_announces_annual_awards_for_excellence_in_services-2/. Accessed January 6, 2014
 “Group Violence, Terrorism, and Impunity–Challenges to Secularism and Rule of Law in India: a Workshop”, posted February 24, 2010, http://indiaworkshopmit.com/. Accessed January 6, 2014
 See the Wikipedia entry on “Marad Massacre”, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marad_massacre. Accessed January 6, 2014
 PI, Rajeev, “Marad report slams Muslim League”, September 27, 2006, The Indian Express, online edition, http://www.indianexpress.com/news/marad-report-slams-muslim-league/13497/. Accessed January 6, 2014
 See Kerala Home Minister Kodiyeri Balakrishnan’s comments in the following news article: “Kerala tables Marad massacre report”, Silicon India, September 27, 2006. Accessed January 6, 2014
 http://indiaworkshopmit.com/speakers/angana-chatterji/. Accessed January 6, 2014
 Chinnaiah Jangam, abstract of “Caste and Collective Violence: A Study of Atrocities on Dalits in India”. http://indiaworkshopmit.com/speakers/chinnaiah-jangam/. Accessed January 6, 2014
 http://indiaworkshopmit.com/speakers/mukul-sinha-and-nirjhari-sinha/, accessed January 7, 2014
 “Hindutva forces are bound to become more aggressive: Mukul Sinha”, November 30, 2007, Two Circles, http://twocircles.net/2007nov30/hindutva_forces_are_bound_become_more_aggressive_mukul_sinha.html. Accessed January 6, 2014
 http://indiaworkshopmit.com/speakers/mukul-sinha-and-nirjhari-sinha/, accessed January 7, 2014
 See abstract of Ganguly’s talk at “Terrorism and Counter terrorism in India: Illegal Detention, Torture and Killings of Terror Suspects”, http://indiaworkshopmit.com/speakers/meenakshi-ganguly/. Accessed January 7, 2014